In both groups, an excess number of cases of leukaemia and other cancers have been observed. Irradiation during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while an increase in breast cancer risk has been observed after irradiation of pre-menopausal women. X-rays and g-rays have also been tested for carcinogenicity at various doses and under various conditions in a range of animal species. In adult animals, the incidences of leukaemia and of mammary, lung, and thyroid tumours were increased in a dose-dependent manner with both types of radiation.
Prenatal exposure also gave rise to increased incidences of various types of tumours. On the basis of this evidence, the monograph concludes that X-radiation and g-radiation are carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenic risk to humans posed by exposure to neutrons is evaluated in the second monograph, which concentrates on risks associated with the exposure of patients to neutron radiotherapy beams and exposures of aircraft passengers and crew.
Neutrons from various sources with wide ranges of mean energy have been tested for carcinogenicity in different animal species, and at various doses and dose rates. In adult animals, the incidences of leukaemia and ovarian, mammary, lung, and liver cancer were increased in a dose-related manner. Prenatal and parental exposure resulted in increased incidences of liver tumours in the offspring. In virtually all studies, neutrons were more effective in inducing tumours than were X-rays and g-rays when compared on the basis of absorbed dose.
Although no adequate human carcinogenicity data were available for assessment, the monograph used other relevant data, including evidence of DNA damage, to reach the conclusion that neutrons are carcinogenic to humans. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.
Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection adopted by the Commission in November Annals of the ICRP. Improved accuracy in the measurement of Eu induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki. Jablon, S. Atomic bomb radiation dose estimation at ABCC. Tech rpt. Kato, K. Habara, Y. Yoshizawa, U. Biebel, G. Haberstock, J.
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Heinzl, G. Morinaga, and E. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 36 Cl produced by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. Kaul, D. Uncertainty Estimates for DS86 Dosimetry. Effect of technology changes at Hiroshima, presented at joint US-Japan dosimetry workshop. Slide presentation. DS86 uncertainty and bias analysis. Draft report. DS86, its roots, its present and its future. Woolson, S. Egbert, and T. A brief summary of comparisons between the DS86 A-bomb survivor dosimetry system and insitu measurements in light of new measurements, revised nuclear data and improved calculational methods.
Proceedings of the 8 th International Conference on Radiation Shielding.
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Kellerer, A. Neutron versus gamma-ray risk estimates. Inferences from the cancer incidence and mortality data in Hiroshima. Risk coefficient for fast neutrons with regard to solid cancer. Kerr, G. Dyer, J. Emery, J. Pace, R. Brodzinski, and J. Activation of cobalt neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, TN. Kimura, T. Determination of specific activity of 60 Co- in steel samples exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. Radioisotopes — Takano, T. Iba, S. Fujita, T. Watanabe, T. Maruyama, and T.
Tokyo — Kodama, Y. Dawel, N. Nakamura, D. Preston, T. Honda, M. Itoh, M. Nakano, K. Ohtaki, and A. Stable chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors: Results from 25 years of investigation. Radiation Research Vol. Komura, K. Contribution on environmental neutrons for the production of Eu, 15 4Eu and 60 Co.
Presentation at the US-Japan joint dosimetry workshop. Abstract from a presentation at the 41st meeting of the Japan Radiation Research Society. December 2—4. Nagasaki, Japan. Kratochvil, B. Wallace, and J. Sampling for chemical analysis. A review of fundamentals. Lafuma, J. Chomelevsky, J. Chameaud, M. Morin, R. Masse, and A. Lung carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley rats after exposure to low doses of radon daughters, fission neutrons, or gamma-rays. Lillie, R. Broadhead, J. Pace, and D. Linus, D.
Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: X- and Gamma (γ)-Radiation, and Neutrons
Elmore, S. Vogt, P. Sharma, M. Bourgeois, and A. Erosin-corrected ages of quaternary geomorphic events using cosmogenic 36 Cl in rocks. Loewe, W. Hiroshima and Nagasaki initial radiations: delayed neutron contributions and comparison of calculated and measured cobalt activation. Maruyama, T. Reassessment of gamma-ray dose estimates from thermoluminescent yields in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. First Report pp. Update on TLD measurements in Hiroshima. January 10— Reassessment of gamma ray doses using thermoluminescence measurements.
The Radiation Research Effects Foundation. Miller, M. How to assess overall data quality. Nagatomo, T. Hoshi, and Y. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of the Hiroshima atomic-bomb gamma rays between 1. Nakamura, N. ESR vs.
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Hiroshma, Japan. Miyazawa, S. Sawada, M. Akiyama, and A. A close correlation between electron spin resonance ESR dosimetry from tooth enamel and cytogenetic dosimetry from lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors.
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Nakanishi, T. Imura, K. Komura, and M. Nature — Ohtani, R. Mizuochi, K. Miyaji, T. Yamamoto, K. Kobayashi, and T. Residual neutron-induced radionuclides in samples exposed to the nuclear explosion over Hiroshima: comparison of the measured values with calculated values.
Tokyo 32 Suppl— Miwa, and R. Specific radioactivity of Eu in roof tiles exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki. Exposure of the population in the United States and Canada from natural background radiation. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Report Bethesda, MD. Risk estimates for radiation protection. Uncertainties in fatal cancer risk estimates used in radiation protection. An assessment of the new dosimetry for A-bomb survivors. Panel on reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. National Academy Press. Board on Radiation Effects Research.
National Research Council see Appendix D of this report. Estimates of late radiation risks to the UK Population.
National Radiological Protection Board. Chilton, U. NUREG Okajima, S. Measurement of neutron-induced Eu radioactivity in Nagasaki. First report. Okumura, H. Reassessment of atomic bomb neutron doses Japanese. Fiscal year Report of research group on atomic bomb related symptoms. Pass, B. Baranov, E. Kleshchenko, J. Aldrich, P. Scallion, and R. Pierce, D. Radiation-related cancer risks at low doses among atomic bomb survivors. Shimizu, D. Preston, M. Vaeth, and K. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: — Preston, D.
Impact of RERF dosimetry on data analysis. January Pierce, and M. Neutrons and radiation risk. A commentary. RERF Update no. Rhodes, R. The making of the atomic bomb. Rhodes, W. Barnes, and R. An explanation of the Hiroshima activation dilemma in the Hiroshima dosimetry discrepancy study. Houston, TX. Roesch, W. Rossi, H. The validity of risk estimates of leukemia incidence based on Japanese data. Leukemia risk from neutrons.
Contribution of neutrons to the biological effects in Hiroshima. Comment on the contribution of neutrons to the biological effect at Hiroshima. Continuation of the discussion concerning neutron effects at Hiroshima. Ruehm, W. Huber, K. Kato, and E. Measurement of 36 Cl at Munich—a status report. Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich. Technical Report. Munich, Germany.
Knie, G. Rugel, A. Marchetti, T. Faestermann, C. Wallner, J. McAninch, T. Straume, and G. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 63 Ni at the Munich Tandem Laboratory for estimating fast neutron fluences from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Shibata, T. Imamura, S. Shibata, Y. Uwamino, T. Ohkubo, S. Satoh, N. Nogawa, H.
Hasai, K. Iwatani, M. Hoshi, and T. A method to estimate the fast neutron fluence for the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Japan — Identification of 63 Ni and 60 Co produced in a steel sample by thermal neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. A — Residual Eu and 60 Co activity induced by atomic bomb neutrons in Nagasaki. Manuscript submitted for publication. Contribution of background neutron activation in the residual activity measurement and present status of Eu measurement for Nagasaki samples. Presentation at a joint meeting of the US and Japan working groups.
Hashi, T. Morishima, and M. Hasai, M. Hoshi, T. Oka, and H. Residual Eu and 60 Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Hoshi, S. Watanabe, and T. Residual 60 Co activity in steel samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic-bomb neutrons. Shimizu, S. Estimation of 32 P induced in sulfur in utility pole insulators at the time of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
US-Japan joint reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Final report, vol. Shimizu, Y. Preston, and K. Report 12, part II. Noncancer mortality: — Sposto, R. Stram, and A. An estimate of the magnitude of random errors in the DS86 dosimetry from data on chromosome aberrations and severe epilation.
Stram, D. Sposto, D. Preston, S.
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