Developing media literacy can be likened to the scene in The Wizard of Oz when Toto pulls back the curtain to reveal the small, lever-pulling man behind the image of the mystical wizard. This is the point where Dorothy and her crew come to realize that the wizard is a carefully constructed fiction rather than some omnipotent force. Like Toto, we too need to learn how to "pull back the curtains" to reveal the truth behind the countless media messages that we are exposed to on a daily, even hourly basis.
By going beyond the surface of such messages, we begin to understand the implicit as well as explicit ideas that are conveyed. Such scrutiny enables us to become active processors rather than passive receptors of the glut of messages in our daily media diet. This critical awareness will better prepare us to deal with the complex issues facing modern society. According to media expert and author Neil Postman, "The way to be liberated from the constraining effects of any medium is to develop a perspective on it-how it works and what it does. Being illiterate in the processes of any medium language leaves one at the mercy of those who control it.
Places To Go. People To See. Teacher Resources. P re K Education. Canvas Logins Find an Institution. Resources and services for Utah Higher Education faculty and students such as Canvas and collegEmedia. Services and resources for learners of all ages. Our goal is to educate, engage, and enrich the lives of Utah residents through broadcast programs and services. Contacts E-mail More Distance Education. Media Literacy In the modern world, much of who we are and what we think depends on the various media messages we receive.
It also features an online catalog of books, videos, and curriculum kits. In the Mix Several of the programs on this site focus on issues related to media literacy. It is a scholarly, yet practical, experimentation with the ways in which all communication technologies can and do shape the education of youth, and the degree to which youth actively participate in that process as critical-minded audiences.
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Clio Awards Get to know the people behind the Clio Awards. These awards are given annually for excellence in advertising. Jean Kilbourne Meet the "first lady" of media literacy and health promotion. You can also sketch diagrams and mind maps in order to illustrate a system, process, or the structure of your ideas. Alternatively, you can visualise and analyse how your ideas can relate to one another and complement or sometimes compete with one another. Diagramming is a useful way to understand complex situations or use cases, where many factors and players affect one another.
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Journey maps, behaviour maps, system flow diagrams, and a range of other mapping methods are at your service to help you scope out complex situations. Sketching is a valuable method of prototyping because you can do it practically everywhere, with a paper and pen, or even on your smartphone or tablet. Digital products like mobile apps, websites, and web services, as well as other screen-based products or experiences often require you to create a range of prototyping methods in the run up to the final design and development.
Paper interfaces are handy at the early stages of prototyping for digital products. You can create paper interfaces by sketching them out, or by drawing and cutting out usable parts of a user interface such as a text field or a dropdown menu, etc. Jakob Nielsen, co-founder of the Nielsen Norman Group, explains that paper prototypes are extremely easy and cheap to produce, while they can provide you with many insights that can help you save money.
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When designing digital products, you may be tempted to create higher-fidelity prototypes directly on a computer, or start creating the product right away. When you use paper interfaces, however, you can uncover many areas for improvement, such as usability issues, that can help you make improvements to your design in the early stages, thus avoiding production costs. According to Nielsen, usability studies show that early-stage changes are about times cheaper than changes made in later stages of a product development process.
As the old proverb goes:. A commonly used process in creating paper interfaces is sketching and assembling prototypes of a working digital system. We do this by using separate sheets of paper, including moveable interface elements, scrolling pieces of paper, and other interactive features. Telling stories is an excellent way of guiding people through a user experience. When you draw storyboards , try to imagine the complete user experience, and then capture it in a series of images or sketches.
According to them, stories not only enable us to collate information on users, tasks, and goals but also spark new ideas by encouraging discussions and collaboration between ourselves and other designers.
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Storyboarding, as a prototyping method, ensures that we know our users well enough it would be hard to sketch a storyboard otherwise and allows us to keep in mind the context of the solution we are designing. It is useful for developing an empathic understanding of users — and for generating high-level ideation and discussions. Storyboards, however, are not very useful for fine-tuning the details of products, because the drawings tend to be more macroscopic in nature. Lego is a staple of any kid's toy box. Its versatility and ability to spark imagination is what drives the company's success.
The best part of using Lego to build your prototypes is that they become easy to dismantle and tweak; simply detach a part of your Lego prototype, swap it with an alternative design, and play with it to see if it works.
In collaboration with Johan Roos and Bart Victor, professors at the International Institute for Management Development in Switzerland, it launched Lego Serious Play , a methodology that aims to foster creative thinking and problem solving in businesses. However, for the purposes of prototyping, any Lego should suffice. You can use Lego bricks to create rough prototypes of products This allows your team to dive straight into setting up your scenarios and telling stories.
Role-playing, or experiential prototyping, is a method that allows your design team to explore scenarios within the system you are targeting physically. You can also use it to gain an empathic understanding of your users — through simulating what they are experiencing. By re-enacting scenes and situations you are attempting to improve, your team can get a better sense of what the experience may actually feel like and where you need to concentrate your main focus on improvement. You can also remember the experience more vividly when you physically experience it, rather than draw it out in a storyboard, for instance.
We can use role-playing with varying levels of detail, but the best experience happens when you simulate the physical environment of the user. If you are the facilitator of the role-playing exercise, assign each participant a role, and choreograph certain skits depending on the purpose of the role-playing exercise. For instance, if you are trying to feel the emotional experience of using your service solution, your team can act out the parts of a user and a service provider.
Decide on roles, scenes and storylines beforehand, and possibly combine this method with storyboarding in order to capture the scenes and the lessons you will learn from each scene. When the end result is a physical product, you can use a wide range of materials to build mock-ups for testing. You can use rough materials, such as paper, cardboard, clay, or foam, and you can also repurpose existing objects you find around you in order to build physical models.
The purpose of a physical model is to bring an intangible idea, or two-dimensional sketch, into a physical, three-dimensional plane. This allows for much better testing with users, and it can spark discussions about the form factor of the solution.
Wizard of Oz prototypes are prototypes with faked functions — for instance, interactivity that comes from a human rather than an algorithm or software code, with users believing the latter is the case — that you can use to test with your users. Like the wizard of Oz in the story who generates an ominous, magical and deceptive appearance from behind a curtain , you are mimicking some aspects of your product for the sake of prototyping it, allowing you to save time and resources.
Note—ethically, we as designers are well within the boundaries when doing this; it does not involve manipulating users for immoral gain. So as to create a Wizard of Oz prototype, you first have to decide on what you want to test or explore. Then, figure out a way of mimicking or faking the interactions.
This requires a fair bit of ingenuity, but you can use ready-made tools such as social media , PowerPoint, instant messaging and videos to create a realistic imitation of computer interactivity. For instance, you could create an interactive PowerPoint presentation and use it together with messages sent to a computer in order to fake the interactions of a social media website without having to code.
You are best off using the Wizard of Oz prototyping method when testing interactions of your product before building it. However, as you may have noticed, this prototyping method involves a fair amount of time and effort. Therefore, you can really only make the best use of it for testing the effects and interactions of complex systems or in the later stages of your design project. A user-driven prototype is unlike any other prototyping method previously mentioned.
Instead of building a prototype to test on users, you will instead get the user to create something, and from the process learn more about the user. When you ask the user to design a solution, rather than provide feedback on a prototype, you can learn about the assumptions and desires that the user possesses.
The purpose of a user-driven prototype is not to use the solutions that the users have generated; instead, it is to use their designs to understand their thinking. You can use user-driven prototypes to gain empathy with your users or to fine-tune the details of your product once you have an idea in mind. In order to create a user-driven prototype, you should ask the users to create something that enables you to understand how they think about certain issues.
For instance, if you are interested in creating an improved airport waiting experience, you could ask users to draw out what they think is the ideal airport waiting process — or you could give them a bunch of Lego bricks and encourage them to show you their dream waiting area in an airport. Alternatively, if your solution is a website, you could ask your users to create a sketch of what features they think the website should have. For user-driven prototypes to be useful, you should balance the amount of help you offer the users so they do not feel lost and thus fail to ideate , while making the session open enough so that you can learn more about the users without shepherding them towards your own ideas, which would defeat the purpose in this light.
With such a wide range of prototypes you can build, it might be a little overwhelming at times when you and your team have to decide on what exactly to build. When prototyping, pay attention to four key considerations: people, objects, location, and interactions.
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These factors will affect how your prototype will work — and what to observe in testing sessions. The range of choices is wide and clear enough for you to latch — sooner rather than later — with the right prototype for you and hence take a large step towards ultimately realising your ideas in the form of a serviceable, user-friendly design. Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems. Design Thinking is not an exclusive property of designers—all great innovators in literature, art, music, science, engineering, and business have practiced it.
So, why call it Design Thinking?
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