To address this we have to look at the geography as well as administration and governance. The Indonesia archipelago is located between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Although Indonesia is considered to be mainly situated within the continent of Asia, some of its territories are located within the continent of Oceania, making it a transcontinental country.
The most populous island is Java which is the home to the capital city of Jakarta.
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The highest point is Puncak Jaya Mountain at 4, meters above sea level. Various lakes and rivers are a common feature with Lake Toba being the largest and River Kalimantan being the longest. Due to Indonesia's proximity to the equator, the climatic conditions do not vary much between summer and winter. The generally tropical climate brings forth adequate rainfall making farming a major activity in the fertile volcanic soils.
Volcanic eruptions have been witnessed with the most recent in The flora and fauna of the country are extremely diverse with millions of coastal and mainland species. A multiparty democracy since , Indonesia is ruled by a president and his deputy who are elected every five calendar years. At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast. A Portuguese attempt to capture Grand Canary, one of the nearby Canary Islands, which had been partially settled by Spaniards in , was unsuccessful and met with protests from Castile.
Around the same time, the Portuguese began to explore the North African coast.
- Indonesia country profile - BBC News.
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Diogo Silves reached the Azores island of Santa Maria in , and in the following years, Portuguese discovered and settled the rest of the Azores. Within two decades of exploration, Portuguese ships bypassed the Sahara.
The long-standing Portuguese goal of finding a sea route to Asia was finally achieved in a ground-breaking voyage commanded by Vasco da Gama. His squadron left Portugal in , rounded the Cape and continued along the coast of East Africa, where a local pilot was brought on board who guided them across the Indian Ocean, reaching Calicut in western India in May Reaching the legendary Indian spice routes unopposed helped the Portuguese improve their economy that, until Gama, was mainly based on trades along Northern and coastal West Africa.
These spices were at first mostly pepper and cinnamon, but soon included other products, all new to Europe. This led to a commercial monopoly for several decades. While following the same south-westerly route as Gama across the Atlantic Ocean, Cabral made landfall on the Brazilian coast. Cabral recommended to the Portuguese king that the land be settled, and two follow-up voyages were sent in and The land was found to be abundant in pau-brasil , or brazilwood, from which it later inherited its name, but the failure to find gold or silver meant that for the time being Portuguese efforts were concentrated on India.
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The route meant that the Portuguese would not need to cross the highly disputed Mediterranean, or the dangerous Arabian Peninsula, and that the entire voyage would be made by sea. They reached Calicut in western India in May The aim of Portugal in the Indian Ocean was to ensure the monopoly of the spice trade. Taking advantage of the rivalries that pitted Hindus against Muslims, the Portuguese established several forts and trading posts between and The National Museum of Australia acknowledges First Australians and recognises their continuous connection to country, community and culture.
Defining Moments Janszoon maps northern Australian coast. Duyfken on its journey to Australia. A map of the possible route taken by the Duyfken on its journey to Australia. The eighteenth, heere departed a small pinnasse of the Flemmings, for the discovery of the Island called Nova ginnea, which, as it is said, affordeth great store of Gold.
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Dutch East India Company During the 16th and early 17th centuries, European competition for control of trade in Asia was fierce. Duyfken in the Gulf of Carpentaria. However, contemporary entries in the diary of English East Indian Company Captain John Saris do show that by June the Duyfken had returned to the East Indies: The fifteenth of June have arrived Nockhoda Tingall … told me that the Flemmings Pinnasse which went upon discovery for Nova Ginny, was returned to Banda, having found the iland: but in sending their men on shoare to intreate of Trade, there were nine of them killed … so they were constrained to returne, finding no good to be done there.
After the voyage The exploratory voyage of the Duyfken was considered unsuccessful by the VOC as no peaceful trade relationships were established with local populations and no easily exploitable resources were found. Curriculum subjects. Year levels. Explore Defining Moments. Evidence of first peoples.
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