Essential Medical English Discourse Markers


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The assumption that C has a tense feature is advocated cross-linguistically. For example, Adger , p. As can be observed, C exhibits tense contrast; it is go in 43a , but gur in 43b. The former is present and the latter past. Frascarelli, ; Rizzi, ; Shormani, Shormani, We discuss the latter in the following section. To conclude this section, we would like to stress that the at-issue content expressed by the vocative expression can also be linked to that of the imperatives, as they, too, have such proposition or performative force.

We are now in a position to tackle the propositional structure in vocatives and how it relates to the informational structure. It is well-known that T-domain represents the propositional structure in other clause-type constructions, declarative clauses, for instance see, e. As for imperative structures, the standard assumption is that imperatives lack tense, hence T altogether.

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Contra this, we will briefly show in this section that imperatives have a TP structure akin to that of other clause types. A priori, since the core computational operations take place in the narrow syntax, we would like to first sketch these operations. Chomsky, ; et seq , Boeckx, ; Shormani, The former merges LIs and forms linguistic objects, and the latter moves them if necessary in the derivation, based on the intrinsic features of these LIs.

Merge is basically related to immediate containment, sisterhood and c-command see Boeckx, , p. We will take Move as Copy. We will also assume, following Boeckx, ; Chomsky, , ; Shormani, , that the intrinsic features are encoded in LIs if they are in relations, and these relations are defined over the most core operation, that is, Merge. Chomsky, , p. Features trigger Match e. Features trigger Move e. Features trigger Agree e.

Imperatives are taken as a clause type; they have been studied thoroughly cross-linguistically see, e. However, we will just focus on the properties presented in A closer look at 47 makes explicit that the subject of imperatives may be overt as illustrated by 47a. As for property iii , it is held cross-linguistically that imperatives are structures that perform speech acts like order, request, advice, threat, praise, etc. This property will be referred to throughout the remaining part of this article. Property iv will be discussed in the following section.

The standard assumption is that imperatives lack tense, and hence T altogether see, e. We show here that imperatives in Yemeni Arabic have tense, and hence T, thus supporting these recent studies. As for tense, imperatives may be said to have a tense of some sort. This tense might be present or future, but not past, as illustrated in As can be observed, in 48a the structure consists of an imperative and a question tag.

The ungrammaticality of 48b obviously indicates that past tense is excluded in imperatives. But, the fact that 48b is not possible suggests that there is a tense feature associated with T in imperative that prevents such a structure. However, a crucial difference between T of imperative and that of other clause types is that T in imperatives seems to always have a 2 person feature. This is also indicated by the- you -subject pronoun, overt or covert. As for Case, we argue here that T enters the derivation with a Nom Case feature.

However, being a clitic in nature, it is difficult to use - a k as an example to illustrate this phenomenon, though languages like French can be used to illustrate this point. However, the question is: where do these features come from? Chomsky, , We also assume that T has a strong EPP feature. This antecedent factor is at the heart of the proposal pursued here.

This antecedent is also clear in the examples presented in 42 , where the A-topic, the relative pronoun and the verb agree in all features. There is a piece of evidence in support of this. Recall that property i implies that the subject of imperatives is a null category, but which null category?

There are, in fact, two types of null pronouns in human languages, viz.

We assume that the subject of imperatives is pro , specifically 2 pro cf. What concerns us here is the 2 person pro , the one characteristic of the subject of imperatives. Consider the following examples. Take languages like French and English as an example; compare and contrast the examples in 51 with 52 cf. Kayne, As far as Arabic is concerned, consider the vocative structures in Thus, based on these facts we propose that pro in imperative structures enters the derivation with valued, but uninterpretable features.

However, when the discourse represented by the vocative expression in CP comes to play, pro obtains its ultimate interpretation. Note also that this coreferentiality between the A-topic and pro not only clarifies the interpretation of pro , but also the interpretation of the whole vocative expression.

And since this coreferentiality takes place between CP and TP domains, it follows that the interpretation of vocatives requires correlating the syntax and discourse at the interface. Still, however, this gives rise to two important questions: i how does this coreferentiality take place cf. These among other related issues are discussed in details in the following section. In this section, we extend the claims put forth in Shormani and apply them to the analysis of vocatives.

In particular, we show that the syntax is correlated with the discourse in vocative constructions, a correlation that accounts for the ultimate interpretation of these structures. An essential property of vocatives, specifically address type, is that they may not be said on their own, that is, they may not stand alone, as shown in 55 below. In other words, if, as argued for so far, vocatives are designed to perform a performative expressive meaning, then there is some sort of action and this action must be performed by a verb performing a speech act.

Essential Medical English Discourse Markers

This verb, we assume, is the imperative form of the verb. What we would like to suggest here is that vocative expressions consist of two parts, namely the vocative and the impetrative, and that both should cooccur. However, imperatives are not the only type of sentence that can cooccur with vocatives. The fact that interrogative and declarative structures cooccur with vocatives is clearly manifested in examples like Our task then is to understand the interpretation of these structures. That is, the speaker in 57a simply means: give me the book if it is with you. Imagine a situation in which a teacher is looking for a book, and he or she thinks that that book is with a student, named Ali , then the speaker may be said to have a choice to either articulate a question: is the book with you?

Or an imperative: give me the book. We take this coincidence to be a correlation , which links the syntax with the discourse at the interface, or the C-domain projections, viz. We will take this correlation as coreferentiality between the A-topic and pro ; the former occupies Spec,TopP and the latter Spec, v P. Bearing this in mind, we are now in a position to address the two questions imposed in Section 3. These questions are restated here as follows: i how does the coreferentiality between A-topic and pro take place in vocative constructions, and ii how is this coreferentiality licensed in a L?

Let us start with question ii. Nevertheless, this account is actually not unproblematic in minimalism see, e. However, the problem with these proposals is that there are certain cases which they fail to account for see Antonenko, , for details. Bearing the properties of Features 45 in mind, the Agree matching mechanism takes the form outlined in This is further formulized in Given 45 and 59 , and following Shormani , in a vocative structure after pro and T merge, there will result a variable matching construed between T and pro.

Let us now turn to question ii stated previously, that is, how is coreferentiality licensed in vocative structures? If this is on the right track, and given 45 and 59 , then 60 would be hypothesized, holding of vocativization in Arabic and possibly cross-linguistically cf. Shormani, , p. If vocatives and imperatives behave similarly across languages, which we presuppose, then 60 could be generalized and extended to all human languages, and parameterization, if any, would then be assumed.

Given the assumption that Agree takes place between phases Chomsky, , then, the matching relation between these elements is an instance of a long-distance Agree. Given also the assumption that a constituent in the v P-edge is visible for Agree in long-distance see Rouveret, , p. It follows, then, that pro is interpreted by being coreferentially linked with the A-topic in Spec,TopP. This is further schematized in Given the discourse nature of 60 , it is much expected that the analysis proposed here accounts for this interpretation.

In what follows, we will argue that it really elegantly does so. Recall that vocatives involve various speaker—addressee relations, but it is difficult to exemplify them all here. We will just focus on some of these relations. And this seems to probably be the case. The following examples illustrate this point. In 63 , there are no vocative particles. In this situation, it also shows politeness between both interlocutors. The fact that the speaker is characterized to the addressee is also signaled.

The 1 person clitics, -i, -i , and— u , signaling the speaker, and which are attached to the grammaticalized terms, can be taken as indicative evidence of these speaker—addressee relations. For example, the vocative particle yaa is formal, while yeeh shows superiority of the speaker, and heeh indicates informality and unfriendliness for an explanation see fn. The latter has been shown to encode not only [Spcty], [Adrs], and [2Pers], but also the speaker—addressee relations, which are the core functional properties of vocativization cross-linguistically.

Note that the coreferentiality between the A-topic and pro in these structures seems to suggest that vocatives are arguments contra the widely spread assumptions in the literature, but see Moro, , for similar conceptions. Given that pro in imperatives is characterized as a 2 person pro , and is referential in nature i. This account enables us to account not only for [2Pers] feature percolation, but also for the percolation of other features, namely [Spcty] and [Adrs]. In conclusion, we have proposed a novel approach to the analysis of vocative expressions, based on data from YA.

We have concerned ourselves only with three questions: the first concerns the internal structure of vocatives. The answer to this question is provided in Section 2, where we concluded that vocative particles are discourse markers, transitive in nature, and their complements are nominal-like elements, the second question concerns the external structure.

The answer to this question is attempted in Section 3, where we demonstrated that vocatives are reduced to the vocative particles, projecting to VocP, and their complements turn to be aboutness topics. VocP is a discourse-based projection posited in the C-domain. The third question concerns the correlation between the internal and external structures of vocatives. The answer to this question is provided in Section 4. In this section, we have argued that both structures are correlated at the interface via coreferentiality between the informational and propositional structures of vocatives. The analysis presented in this article seems to have several implications.

We will just mention the most important ones. The first implication is that tackling vocatives in terms of aboutness topics seems to be minimalist in nature; it reduces the complexities and the machinery apparatus of the computational system of the language faculty cf. For example, we do not need more projections like SpeakerP, RoleP, AdresseeP, and so forth, as assumed in some of the recent literature see, e.

These projections impose extra complications for the computational system. But they disappear if we just postulate that the vocative is reduced to the particle and that its complement is an A-topic. Another implication has to do with extending this approach to vocatives cross-linguistically. Take 41 as an example, it seems to be applicable to the cross-linguistic data though not enough presented in this article.

One more implication is that the analysis can also be extended and applied to imperatives as a separate clause type. The usual disclaimers apply. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits. We use cookies to improve your website experience.

To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our cookie policy. By continuing to use the website, you consent to our use of cookies. More information Accept. Authors 2. Close Mohammed Q. Shormani moshormani gmail. Mohammed Ali Qarabesh mqarabesh gmail. About the author s Mohammed Q. Download PDF. Cite this article as:. Article Figures and tables References.

Abstract Abstract Vocative expressions have been neglected in linguistic inquiry until very recently. Public Interest Statement Vocatives are very important expressions used in human language. Hey Ali! Where are you?


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Where is Alia? I am looking for you. This article will be limited, and mainly seek answers, to the following three questions: I. What is the internal structure of vocatives? What is the external structure of vocatives? Can these two structures be correlated? Internal structure of vocatives In this section, we address vocative formation, examining the existing literature on vocatives cross-linguistically, and providing empirical evidence that, internally, vocatives should be handled in a syntactic approach. Vocatives in the literature It was held that vocatives only pragmatically contribute to the interpretation; they bring a referential noun phrase to focus cf.

Who is doing noise, shut up! Syntactic evidence As noted earlier, vocatives have been considered nonarguments, and not instances of predication. Distribution uniformity Vocatives occur either to the left or to the right of the clausal periphery cross-linguistically, which means that vocatives have the same distribution see also Hill, ; Stavrou, Agreement In addition to vocatives formed by a vocative particle and a constituent, a vocative in Arabic can also be formed by a common noun of profession, religion, kinship, etc. Stupid student! Ordering restrictions Ordering restrictions have been seen as a diagnostic for syntactic evidence see, e.

You Ali! Ali c. Hey, Ali! Syntactic relations In YA vocatives, we find syntactic relations between a vocative noun and another constituent. As for passivization, we can notice it in past participle vocatives in YA examples like Taller one! Maria and Pietro, Gianni is arrived c. Sentence topic: 19a is about Mr.

Morgan c. Discourse topic: 19a is about Mr. John saw Jane yesterday. Did anybody see Jane yesterday? Jane is the topic Reinhart argues that though Jane is not the subject, nor is it the first element in the sentence, it is the topic in 20c because it is what the sentence is about i. Ali, come here! Ali, he will come tomorrow morning. I like your t-shirt! Le Seigneur est mon esperance. Lord you are my hope O, Lord you are my hope! Caro Leo, vieni a trovarmi. I like your T-shirt, man! Calleu, nois! Shut up, boys! Joan and Maria come. Informational structure It has long been argued that informational coda has a structure; this structure is C-domain see, e.

Ali, where you? Propositional structure We are now in a position to tackle the propositional structure in vocatives and how it relates to the informational structure. Imperatives in vocative structures Imperatives are taken as a clause type; they have been studied thoroughly cross-linguistically see, e.

Hey Ali, pro write! Hey students, pro open your books! VOC Ali, write. Correlating the syntax and discourse at the interface In this section, we extend the claims put forth in Shormani and apply them to the analysis of vocatives. Is the book with you? Alia likes apples!

Conclusions, implications and further issues In conclusion, we have proposed a novel approach to the analysis of vocative expressions, based on data from YA. Funding The authors received no direct funding for this research. References Abuladze, L. The vocative in Georgian. Hanna Eds. Arguments and agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Three domains of finiteness: A minimalist perspective. Nikolaeva Ed. Feature-based binding and phase theory Ph. Stony Brook University. Essays on the representational and derivational nature of grammar: The diversity of Wh-Constructions. Literary and dialectal forms of address in Georgian.

An Account of Discourse Markers in: International Review of Pragmatics Volume 1 Issue 2 ()

Studia Linguistica , 45, — The syntax of address in Latin. Willi Eds. Oxford: Oxford University. Il clitico a nel dialetto padovano. In Scritti linguistici in onore di G. Pellegrini pp. Pisa: Pacini. The position of topic and focus in the left periphery. Salvi Eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier. A detailed map of the left periphery of Medieval Romance. Zanuttini, H.

Campos, E. Portner Eds. Washington: Georgetown university press. The feature structure of functional categories. A comparative study of Arabic dialects. Agreement, pro and imperatives. Ackema, P. Brandt, M. Weerman Eds. A government-binding perspective on the imperative in English. Journal of Linguistics , 25, — Is topic a root phenomenon? An International Journal of Theoretical Linguistics , 2, 43— Parametric variation: Null subjects in minimalist theory.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Islands and chains: Resumption as stranding. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Superiority, reconstruction, and islands. Freidin, C. Zubizarreta Eds. Relative clauses and the theory of phrase structure. Linguistic Inquiry , 28 4 , — On the locality of move and agree: Eliminating the activation condition, and the phase-impenetrability condition. The pronouns of power and solidarity. Sebeok Eds. New York, NY: Wiley. Some concepts and consequences of the theory of government and binding.

Cambridge: MIT Press. The minimalist program. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. Martin, D. Uriagereka Eds. Derivation by phase. Kenstowicz Eds. Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry , 36, 1— On phases. Problems of projection. Lingua , , 33— Restructuring and functional heads. In The cartography of syntactic structures Vol. The cartography of syntactic structures. Narrog Eds. Uniformity and diversity in the syntax of evaluative vocatives. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics , 11, 43— Vocatives and third-person imperatives in English.

Paper in Linguistics , 1, — Information structure: The syntax—Discourse interface. On the structure of vocatives. Approaches to discourse particles. Subjects, topics and the interpretation of referential pro: An interface approach to the linking of null pronouns. Types of topics in German and Italian. Schwabe Eds. Topic continuity in discourse: An introduction.

West Flemish verb-based discourse markers and the articulation of the speech act layer. Studia Linguistica , 68, — The syntax and semantics of imperatives and related constructions Ph. University of Pennsylvania. Reflexive binding as agreement and its interactions with the phase system. Imanishi Ed. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. The Linguistic Review , 4, — The derivation of anaphoric relations.

Vocatives and the pragmatics—Syntax interface. Lingua , , — Features and strategies: The internal syntax of vocative phrases. Vocatives: How syntax meets with pragmatics. Leiden: Brill.

Discourse Variation

Is there a little pro? Evidence from Finnish. Linguistic Inquiry , 36, — Null subject parameters. Biberauer, A. Holmberg, I. Sheehan Eds. On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry , 15, — Pro-drop in Chinese: A generalized control theory. Safir Eds. Dordrecht: Kluwer. The null subject parameter. Vocative and the grammar of calls. Syntax and semantics of imperative subjects. Nordlyd , 31, — Interpreting imperatives.

Studies in linguistics and philosophy. Berlin: Springer. Linguistic Inquiry , 14, — The antisymmetry of syntax. Pronouns and their antecedents. Seely Eds. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. The rich agreement hypothesis rehabilitated. Adler 3.

VOCABULARY: Showing your attitude with discourse markers

Rettie 4. If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if you perhaps need to start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea.

A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below. Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description. This notion may contrast with your previous ideas about repetition in writing; however, you must now accept that in order to write academic English well, you will have to learn to approach the concept of repetition from a different point of view.

Create parallel structures. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences helps your reader see the connections between ideas. First of all, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals.

The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals ALL reptiles, ALL mammals, for example is remarkably regular. Since we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do AS WELL AS smaller animals. If we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow.

Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitional expressions also known as discourse markers or connectors emphasize the relationships between ideas, so they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might otherwise miss or misunderstand. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not as fast as body size.

SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. In the next section of this manual, beginning on the following page, you will find paragraphing exercises that will help you work on your ability to identify, define and eventually generate topic sentences.

You will also be working on paragraph division and on coherence. Although none of the exercises focuses exclusively on the placement of new and old information as in the above examples, ideally you should make a concerted effort to notice how the sentences you read begin and end. Do you see how what was old information in one sentence introduced towards the end of a sentence is transformed into new information and then often occurs at the beginning of a subsequent sentence? This sort of progressive linking of ideas and information is at the heart of clear and successful English writing and your ability to be aware of the process can make all the difference in your own capacity to write well.

The ability to consciously notice this and other aspects of language use is known as language awareness and increasing it is one of the best ways to improve your capacity for learning. Language awareness implies a constant curiosity about language and an active participation in your own learning processes. As writing is so clearly an active skill in that you generate the language rather than having to understand it only , your active involvement and your level of language awareness become key factors in your eventual improvement and satisfaction. The first paragraph is in its original form and format, the only exception being that its topic sentence appears in bold type.

In addition, any elements throughout the paragraph that contribute to its coherence have been highlighted in bold as well in order to help you get a feel for how the language is being used to create a unified, easy-to-follow text. As stated above, coherence can be created by the use of discourse markers, which help orient the reader towards the flow of the information, and it can also be created through the repetition of old information to link back to previous text. For two hundred years, the White House has stood as a symbol of the Presidency, the United States government, and the American people.

Discourse markers that monitor what we say

Below you will find the second paragraph of the text, but the sentences have been separated from each other and their order has been changed. Decide which of them should be the first, or topic sentence of the second paragraph and then put the other sentences into the most logical order possible. When you feel sure about the order, write out your final version of the second paragraph in the space provided, underlining the topic sentence and also any coherency items as well.

Make sure that your layout of the paragraph reflects its inherent structure; in other words, do not simply write out 4 separate sentences as shown below, changing only the order, but rather create a unified block of sentences that are clearly and instantly identifiable as a paragraph. It was not until , when the White House was nearly completed, that its first residents, President John Adams and his wife, Abigail, moved in.

It is also the only private residence of a head of state that is open to the public, free of charge. Construction began when the first cornerstone was laid in October of Although President Washington oversaw the construction of the house, he never lived in it. Since that time, each President has made his own changes and additions.

This time two paragraphs have been merged together to form one single paragraph. Your task is to decide where the text should be broken into two different paragraphs as it was presented in the original text. When we are revising written work, there is a symbol that is used to indicate where a new paragraph should be started within the text. Read the text below carefully and decide where to insert the new paragraph symbol in order to break up the text into two separate paragraphs.

Remember that a new paragraph should begin with a topic sentence which will prepare the reader for what is coming afterwards. The White House has a unique and fascinating history. It survived a fire at the hands of the British in during the war of and another fire in the West Wing in , while Herbert Hoover was President. Throughout much of Harry S.

Nonetheless, the exterior stone walls are those first put in place when the White House was constructed two centuries ago. Presidents can express their individual style in how they decorate some parts of the house and in how they receive the public during their stay. Thomas Jefferson held the first Inaugural open house in Many of those who attended the swearing-in ceremony at the U. Capitol simply followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. President Jefferson also opened the house for public tours, and it has remained open, except during wartime, ever since. In , a horde of 20, Inaugural callers forced President Andrew Jackson to flee to the safety of a hotel while, on the lawn, aides filled washtubs with orange juice and whiskey to lure the mob out of the mud-tracked White House.

This analysis will lead you to the overall theme of each paragraph and from there you should be able to produce a heading for the paragraph which sums up its theme. The History of Pizza Paragraph 1 heading:. Pizza, like so many other foods, did not originate in the country for which it is now famous. Unless you have researched the subject, you, like so many people, probably always thought Pizza was strictly an Italian creation. In reality, the foundations for Pizza were originally laid by the early Greeks who first baked large, round and flat breads which they topped with various items such as olive oils, spices, potatoes and other things.

However, tomatoes were not known in Greece at that time or, very likely, the Greeks too would have used them to garnish Pizza as we do today. Paragraph 2 heading:. Eventually the idea of flat bread found its way from Greece to Italy where, in the 18th century, the flat breads called "Pizzas" were sold on the streets and in the markets. They were not topped with anything but were enjoyed au naturel.

Since they were relatively cheap to make and were tasty and filling, they were sold to the poor all over Naples by street vendors. Paragraph 3 heading:. The arrival of the tomato in Italy and the visit of a queen to Naples contributed to the Pizza as we know and enjoy it today. In about , Queen Margherita, accompanied by her husband, Umberto I, took an inspection tour of her Italian Kingdom. During her travels around Italy she saw many people, especially the peasants, eating this large, flat bread. The queen, who was in Naples at the time, was curious and so ordered her guards to bring her one of these Pizza breads.

The Queen loved the bread and would eat it every time she was out amongst the people, which caused some consternation in Court circles. It was not seemly for a Queen to dine on peasant's food. Paragraph 4 heading:. Summoning Chef Rafaelle Esposito from his Neapolitan pizzeria to the royal palace, the queen ordered him to bake a selection of pizzas for her pleasure. To honor the queen who was much beloved by her subjects, Rafaelle decided to make a very special pizza just for her.

He baked a Pizza topped with tomatoes, Mozzarella Cheese, and fresh Basil to represent the colors of the Italian flag: Red, white, and green. Paragraph 5 heading:. This became Queen Margherita's favorite pizza and when word got out that this was one of the queen's favorite foods, she became even more popular with the Italian people. She also started a culinary tradition, the Pizza Margherita, which lasts to this very day in Naples and has now spread throughout the world. However, here you are given a choice of headings to choose from and you have to match the most appropriate heading to each paragraph in the text, rather than inventing your own heading as you did in the previous exercise.

The exercise is based on one that comes from the Reading Comprehension section of the Cambridge First Certificate Exam and you may find the level a bit more difficult than that of the previous text and exercise. If you are interested in testing your readiness for possibly taking the First Certificate Exam and this could be a very good and motivating activity for you to think about! If this proves too difficult, then take your time and check a monolingual dictionary only!

Instructions You are going to read a magazine article on the next page that gives advice about how to overcome sleep problems. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A - I for each paragraph 1 - 7 of the article. There is one extra heading you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning 0. If you're peckish, have a 0 H snack rich in carbohydrates, which trigger the release of the brain chemical serotonin, If you've had one or two bad nights lately, you associated with relaxation.

Try a cracker or a can probably solve the problem by taking bowl of cereal. For starters, make your bedroom a haven for sleep. Your 4 room should be quiet and sufficiently dark, because darkness prompts the pineal gland Watch the caffeine. Too much caffeine to produce melatonin, the hormone that throughout the day, even if it's not consumed induces sleep. Heavy curtains can help keep right before bedtime, can contribute to fitful the light out, and a fan can help drown out slumber. Once you hit 50, your metabolism any annoying sounds. Cool temperatures slows down, so caffeine may stay in your help you sleep, so set your thermostat system longer - up to 10 hours.

Limit yourself appropriately. For better air circulation, open to two cups of tea, coffee, or cola, taken at a window or use a fan. If the air in the room is least 6 hours before bedtime. If that doesn't too dry, buy a humidifier. It's a simple fact: If you're physically tired at the end of the day, A night-time routine can be very effective in you'll sleep better. Outdoor exercise is letting your body know when it's time to especially helpful.

Try jogging or a brisk walk. Go through whatever rituals help you Remember that your body needs some time get mentally prepared for sleep. Read a few to unwind so you should exercise at least pages of your novel, spend 5 to 10 minutes three hours before bedtime. It's also critical to go to bed and get up at the same time every day, even at the weekends. Your body temperature will slowly drop after you get out Reserve your bed just for sleeping.


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  • Avoid of the bathtub, making you feel sleepy. For working, paying bills, reading, or watching further relaxation, investigate the benefits of television in bed. If you associate your bed camomile, valerian, or passionflower. These only with sleep, you'll be more likely to fall herbs can be taken in hot drinks or other asleep when you get under the covers for the forms. A cup of camomile tea before bedtime night. A bed that's too soft can cause poor may be all you need to unwind. Replace 7 your mattress if it's more than 10 years old, and buy one that's as firm as you can tolerate Following these steps should help you to nod but still comfortable.

    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers
    Essential Medical English Discourse Markers Essential Medical English Discourse Markers

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