Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide


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NTA does an excellent job of analyzing any file, but it is particularly useful to evaluate swap files such as the pagefile. To evaluate a swap file such as pagefile. Now run NTA against the copy of pagefile. Obtain context-sensitive help at any time by pressing the El key. Stores the extension of the e-mail address or URL; may contain country code. Potentially a country whose policies conflict with those of the United States The country might be involved with terrorism, drug trafficking, or espionage. Potential Internet transaction related to narcotics violations.

Potential Internet transaction related to hate crimes, terrorism and bomb making, children at risk. Potential Internet transaction related to pornography. Find Internet browsing leads 2. Find e-mail activity leads 3. Find graphic and file download 4. Remember: Swap files can be months or even years old.

The following functions are performed by AnaDisk-. Context-sensitive help is available via the FI key. Press FI to read about each of the nine choices. Scan: Reads a diskette and informs you of any problems it may have. Classihes the diskette according to its operating system type.

Printable Resources

Press the space bar to go from track to track. The yellow arrow at the top points up for side 0 and down for side 1. Select No for each choice for fastest performance. Sector: Allows you to edit a diskette on a sector-by-sector basis. Follow the prompts and use FI for Help. File: Examines hies based on the hie name. Search: Searches for data you specify on a diskette. Copy: Allows you to make a true copy of a diskette. Repair: Fixes data errors on diskettes. Format: Allows you to custom format a diskette.

Dump: Performs a sector-by-sector copy of a diskette area to a DOS file. When performing various functions, you will be asked if you want to write to an audit hie. It is best to answer yes because this provides a hie that tells you what happened during the time the function you chose was performing its operation. You will be asked various questions during some of the functions. Use the arrow keys to navigate to the choices.

Seized New Technologies, Inc. For example, if the CMOS settings have the system booting hrst from the diskette drive usually drive A , then place Seized on a bootable diskette in a hie named autoexec. If the system is turned on, the warning message will hash and prevent system usage. Seized is called from the autoexec. If the computer system is turned on, the user will see the hashing warning message from the Seized program. If the computer is conhgured to boot from a hard drive hrst, and you place Seized as the hrst line of your autoexec.

If, at a later date, you wish to restore the system to a usable state, you will need to boot the system from a boot diskette. Once the system is up, edit the autoexec. From then on it will work like a normal computer system. Scrub overwrites each disk sector using all zero bits and then all one bits. The number of times the hard drive can be overwritten i.

Remember that zero 0 is the hrst hard drive in your system, one 1 is the second drive, two 2 is the third hard drive, etc. Scrub usually requests verihcation from the user before it begins running. Scrub does not ask for verihcation. This is useful if you wish to automate the scrubbing process.

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As mentioned above, a hex F6 is the last pattern written to the hard drive using default settings. I will now present two examples for clarihcation: 1. Scrub drives 0, 1, 2, and 3 with 7 passes of zeros and ones and a hnal pass of the A4 pattern. The user will not verify the scrub. Scrub all drives with 8 passes of zeros and ones and a hnal pass of the D5 pattern. No user verihcation is necessary. Each hie that is created by Spaces contains exactly 10, spaces. Personnel involved with encryption realize that this makes Spaces ideal for evaluating encryption patterns and certain other weaknesses from a computer security perspective.

The hie contains exactly 10, spaces. I will place the results in a hie on drive C named SecretData. SecretData will have a hie extension of. This file can be read by Microsoft Excel or any other program that reads. The MD5 hash value is used to determine whether or not the contents of a hie have been altered. It can also be used to identify hies with identical contents regardless of the names that have been given to the hies. The time zone the computer is set up for must be taken into account. Be patient. It may take 15 or 20 minutes for large hies. I will place the results in a hie on drive C named FreeData.

It is hne to look at the normal text hrst, but do not forget that binary data can hold critical information. Data found in the free space of a hard drive is important because it may contain data from hies that have been deleted, data created for temporary use by many commonly used application programs, and data from dynamic swap or page hies.

The hie extension used is. Fxx such as. F02, etc. I will place the results in a hie on drive C named SlackData. Sxx such as. S02, etc. You may include the full path. The details for DiskSearch 32 will now be covered. Then you will see a menu- type program. Either press the keys alt-D hold down the Alt key then press the D key or click on Drive with the mouse. Source: You have the option of either typing in the words to be searched for from the keyboard or telling source that there are words stored in a file that you created earlier and you want source to use this file.

If you click Screen again, the checkmark goes away. As long as the checkmark is present, the function will be performed. If a checkmark is not present, the particular item will not be done. Begin: The keyword search is almost ready to begin. You will be asked to enter a file name if you told the program that your keywords were in a file.

If you chose the keyboard option, a screen will be shown. Now click on Select to choose the sector you want to look in. Click on ok. Click on Previous or Next as necessary to go backward or forward in the search. As an example, I want to search a diskette in drive A. Using the mouse, click on Drive. Click on Source and choose Keyboard, because I will type in the words to be searched for from the keyboard.

If I chose File as the source, then the program will later ask for the name of the file that holds the words to be searched for must be an ASCII text file, not a file such as a Microsoft Word document. Click on Options. Then click on Screen. A checkmark should be next to the word Screen. If not, click on Screen again and the checkmark will be present.

Click on Begin. You will now see the Search in Progress window.

Forensic Computing

As you see each result, press the continue button to tell the program to search for more keyword results. Take notes as you go or if you told it to also write to a file then your results will be there. When it tells you the search is complete, click on the OK button. You can now either use your notes or go to the results file you created for further analysis. To leave the program, click on Quit. Then click on Quit to DOS.

If you are already very familiar with forensic evidence processing and are skilled with computers, you should be able to intuitively hgure out how to use EnCase based on the following information. A screenshot of EnCase which is ready to begin a new case is illustrated in Exhibit 1. The Dongle Shield the dongle when it is not being used.

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Place it in the pink antistatic bag provided by GSI. If you are using a Zip Drive or printer that passes through the dongle, be sure to plug the dongle into the computer first. The dongle may be damaged otherwise. If using the cable preview feature, be sure to plug the dongle into your computer running MS Windows hrst. Then plug the null modem cable that came with EnCase into the dongle. After doing that, you may then plug the other end of the cable into the target computer system. The investigator is permitted to make copies of the EnCase software to acquire evidence. The USB dongle is much more reliable than the parallel port dongle.

If at all possible, obtain the USB dongle and use it. Username and Password Remember that username and password are case sensitive. EScript Macros EScript macros are executable hies. Be sure to take this into account when using EScript. Use a trustworthy source since it is possible to create malicious Escript hies and attach viruses to them. Introductory Notes Without adversely impacting the evidence collected, EnCase can compress the data on a hard drive of any size and store the information on removable media. EnCase will automatically verify the evidence copy and generate CRC and MD5 hash values concurrent with the acquisition of the evidence.

EnCase also allows you to build and use your own hash library to identify known files. It analyzes and authenticates file signatures to find those files that have been renamed to conceal their true purpose or identity. EnCase follows the new convention and refers to sectors starting at the number zero and moves up.

Therefore, the very first sector of a physical disk is absolute sector zero. It is not difficult to hide or change information from DOS if a change is made to a single byte in the partition table. If more than four partitions are on a drive, an Extended Partition EP is created. The first sector of every EP is a boot sector with another partition table.


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There is a volume boot sector that contains volume boot code. The purpose of this code is to find a file in the root folder io. Note: The sectors on the track between the beginning of a partition and the partition boot record are not normally used by any file system. It is possible to hide information there. If information is hidden there, EnCase will find it. If it is not zero, then there are other codes that indicate to which part of its file the cluster belongs. File slack is the space between the logical end of a file and its physical end. The logical size of a file is its actual size.

The physical size of a file is how much room the file actually takes up on the hard drive from a practical perspective. RAM slack is the space from the end of the hie logical to the end of the containing sector. Remember: Before a sector is written to disk, it is stored in a RAM buffer. Information that was never saved can be found in RAM slack on a drive. The Inode tables are used to describe files that are located in each Group. Note: Each Group contains a series of Inodes and Blocks. The MD5 Message Digest hash is a bit l6-byte value that uniquely describes the contents of a file.

MD5 is a standard in the forensics world. Therefore, if two 2 MD5 values match, you can assume the files match exactly. The odds that 2 differing data blocks produce the same CRC are approximately 1 in 4 billion. Even though it is difficult, CRC values can be reverse engineered; therefore, the method of choice for verifying the integrity of a document is the MD5 hash. Many file types contain some bytes at the beginning of the file that constitute a unique signature of that file type such as GIE files. EnCase takes advantages of these signatures.

Header 2. Checksum 3. Data Blocks 4. MD5 Block The acquired bit-stream image is called the evidence file. A boot diskette with the appropriate DOS commands, drivers, etc. You should have typed your list of keywords or imported them now. They will be saved for future use. Now use the following DOS boot procedure on the target machine. Booting the unknown machine is the riskiest part of the evidence collection process.

This procedure should keep you and your evidence safe. This will power it down. The Client computer is your lab computer or laptop. The Server Mode screen will say Connected when all is well. Use EnCase to search the disk for keyword hits before deciding whether or not to create the Evidence Eile. Use the space bar to pause or ESC to cancel at any time. A search can take hours, so put your time to good use during this time. If the evidence drive hlls up, EnCase will prompt you for another disk. EnCase begins acquisition.

This information does not apply to the Windows boot drive. It is not possible to preview the Windows boot drive safely. Preview Mode is a quick way to discover evidence, but the preview feature does not allow you to save bookmarks or search results. Use Preview Mode to establish probable cause for creating an image.

You can now use any capabilities of EnCase you wish, but you will not be able to save the results. How Do I Build a Case? Create Evidence Files EF for each piece of media you investigate. Create a new folder directory for each case. Put all EF and the CF in this folder to keep them organized. All case hies end in. You have already acquired all your EF and you have placed your EF in the appropriate folder. However, you need to add evidence to a case.

How Do I View a Case? Click on the Case Tab to see the three-window case view. On the left side, click on the folder you wish to view. The top right window now shows the hies contained in the folder you selected on the left side. The bottom right window shows the contents of the hie you selected in the top right window. Then do Ctrl-Home and click on a hlename to view. Click on the File tab and see the contents.

Note: Slack space is in red. You can switch between hex and text view. Highlighting hex or text in reverse video will show the corresponding text or hex. Each colored box is a cluster. The Disk view is shown by sector, not by cluster as in the Volume view. Note: Place different types of items pictures, documents, fragments, past searches, etc. How Do I Search a Case? You have created a CF. Now enter keywords and any options associated with them. Select Tools, Search-. If you are looking for Chu, it will avoid finding Chuck. Matches a credit card number with the dashes being optional.

The first number can only be a 4, 5, or 6. Matches a date in regular form with a 4 digit year and either 1 or 2 digit months and days separated by either forward slashes or dashes. Hash analysis can be used to identify files which are not of interest such as common operating system files and files which are of interest known hacking tools, etc.

To use the hash analysis feature, there must be an encase.

To create a hash set: Note: A hash set allows building a set of hash values for any group of files. Remember that the hash value is determined by the file contents, not the filename. Use hash set to include and exclude files from your searches.


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All bookmarks are saved with the case. You can then bookmark if the display is what you were looking for. Recovering Data When copying a deleted hie, EnCase will attempt to automatically unerase the hie if possible. To copy a group of selected files-. Springfield, VA. Four screenshots of the product are included in this section.

The bottom line is that it takes your collection of case data and provides a visual picture. This can be of immense help during the course of an investigation. You can create charts, graphs, links, etc. Any chart that is created automatically can be fine-tuned manually. The charts are also quite useful for establishing cause and effect between various events; corroborating witness statements, and simulating a sequence of events see Exhibits 2, 3, and 4.

Even if you have, it can still be useful. You can quickly and easily design your own databases without advanced technical expertise. Advanced reporting capabilities allow quick creation of both standard and specialized reports. Data can be secured via passwords, access levels, and auditing facilities. Additional iBase functions enable you to extend your search across the database to retrieve words that sound similar to those specihed in the search criteria.

This can be quite useful in the spelling of names or in the case of spelling errors made by the individuals under investigation. It can also be useful in hnding words used by hackers in which they use the letter z for s, the number 3 for E, etc. A synonym search can be done in which a word marijuana for instance being searching for would also hnd the words grass, weed, pot, reefer, and Mary Jane. You can also continuously rehne the searches you make, beginning with a general search which obtains lots of data and then rehning the search to reduce the data to be sifted through.

VisualRoute provides a graphical interface. This product has a number of options which you can set. A standard report from VisualRoute is illustrated in Exhibit 6. NeoTrace Pro also provides a graphical interface. This product has a number of options. A standard report from NeoTrace Pro is illustrated in Exhibit 7.

This product has many options, as you can see from the tabs on Exhibit 8. AccessData has been doing password recovery since PRTK is used by law enforcement organizations and corporations. The product is updated quarterly. Read the manual. When starting the product, you will see the password request. Insert the license diskette in to the diskette drive.

Type in the default password given with the product is typical. See the Simple Start wizard and its four selections. Put in your new secure password pass phrase is best and then click on OK. Now the license disk has a new password. You must remember the new password. The license disk only has to be used the first time you launch the program.

Once the program is running, remove the license disk for the rest of the session. However, each time you start up the program, you must have the license diskette in the diskette drive. Click on the red Stop icon if you get enough files and want to work with just those. You can also select individual files or folders using this icon. Fill out the dialog box that pops up when you do this. This allows you to add additional files on a one-by-one basis.

Multiple files can also be added. Now password- protected files show up on the PRTK screen. PRTK can show if a file extension Registered Type column is telling the truth about the file type it actually is Identified Type column. A font difference between the two columns indicates quickly if the two columns do not match they normally would. File hashing verification can be done by PRTK, allowing you to discover if a file is what it says it is.

It can be used to show whether or not a file or files were changed in some manner at some time. For password recovery, the three levels are easy, medium, and hard. PRTK remembers all the passwords it has recovered in the past. To input biographical data: Click on the Person icon Biographical Information. Click on New and give the bio dictionary a name. Click on OK. Now a large word list is created.

Click on the icon of the person with books. Click on New and type in the profile Name. A profile is a list of dictionaries. Select the dictionaries you want in the profile and click on OK. Select some files. Select the profile you want. Open the Recovery Properties dialog box and begin recovery. The Open File button allows access to the password-protected file once recovery is completed. When the password request button comes up, use Ctrl-V to paste in the recovered password. Stop Recovery We will now go through a complete process. First, learn as much as you can about the perpetrators.

Look at their pictures, books, rooms, etc. Second, determine the purpose of the file you are trying to get into. Now go into PRTK. Open the Setup Profiles dialog box. Now click on the Biographical Information icon person. Be sure you have everything there you need. Organization is important. Now click on OK. Password recovery begins immediately, as shown on your screen. As the recovery moves along, other files can be dragged onto the recovery screen. PRTK will begin working on each file once you click on OK on the dialog box that pops up during the drag when its turn in the queue arrives.

Force work to begin immediately on a file by selecting the file on the PRTK screen, right clicking, and pressing the Start Recovery button. What if PRTK says it could not obtain the password? DNA is a client-server product and harnesses the processing power from multiple machines to break the password.

The machines must have an IP address connected to the Internet. DNA uses unused processor cycles. The user of the other machines does not notice that these cycles are being used. One machine is set up as the DNA Manager. It polls the clients and divides up the work load. Only on a copy of the evidence. Before booting a computer with a diskette, what critical item should you check? CMOS settings to ensure the diskette boots first. If you boot from the hard drive you will corrupt or lose evidence. Who should be the hrst person sitting with you at the victim machine?

A System Administrator who is an expert on that system type. What do you want to obtain from a dot matrix or impact printer? What should computer and magnetic media be kept away from? Magnetic fields. What tool can you use to prove a hie was not altered?

Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Second Edition

If your assistant encrypts a hie, is it done with a public key or private key? You then decrypt it with your private key. What command do you type to format a DOS diskette so it is bootable? What software tool should you use? What CF tool is used to obtain slack space data? GetSlack from NTI. Why should you NOT turn off the modem?

May contain the last number dialed. Do you want an orderly shutdown of the computer? Why or why not? Valuable data could be lost during an orderly shutdown. How do you perform a disorderly shutdown of a computer? Disconnect the plug on the back of the computer. Do not use the off switch. How large must the destination drive be when using SafeBack? At least as large as the source disk. Should you load and run evidence collection and analysis tools from the hard drive that contains the evidence you are collecting?

Name other network devices you can collect evidence from besides standard computer systems? Firewalls, routers, switches, e-mail server What software tool can you use in court to prove that your copy of the hie is valid? What tool would be used to collect a bitstream backup of a hard drive? SafeBack from NTI. When using SafeBack, one of the options is local and the other is Iptl. Explain each of these options. What does the program ResPart. Restores partition table data when it is destroyed. To start SafeBack, what hlename do you type from the diskette?

When using the backup selection on SafeBack, are you making a bitstream backup? What does the restore function do in SafeBack? Restores the bitstream image to the destination drive. You have used SafeBack to make your bitstream backup. Paperback ISBN: Imprint: Academic Press. Published Date: 22nd October Page Count: For regional delivery times, please check When will I receive my book?

Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Institutional Subscription. Instructor Ancillary Support Materials. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review! We value your input. Soumik Roy is a business and technology specialist. He helps small and medium enterprise owners understand what's most important to their company's growth and success. Cybercrime investigators are niche and effective.

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Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide
Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide Cyber Crime Investigators Field Guide

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